Daily feeding and management techniques for breeding cows
People raise beef breeding cows and expect high conception rate of cows, high lactation performance, strong ability to feed calves, and early return to estrus after calving: it is expected that the calves produced are of good quality, new birth weight, and large milk production. High survival rate from weaning. So how can it be achieved? Sheep and Cattle breeding net introduces the daily breeding and management techniques of breeding cows as follows:
(1) Feeding and management of pregnant cows
After a cow is pregnant, it not only needs nutrition for its growth and development, but also satisfies the nutritional needs of the growth and development of the fetus and stores nutrients for postpartum lactation. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the feeding and management of pregnant cows to enable them to calve and lactate normally.
1. Strengthen the feeding of pregnant cows. Cows are generally fed as empty cows at the beginning of pregnancy. Nutrition should be strengthened during the last 2 to 3 months of pregnancy. Cow nutrition during this period directly affects fetal growth and nutrition. Accumulate. Feeding pregnant cows in a house should adjust the diet formula and increase the amount of nutrients in accordance with the increase in pregnancy months. For grazing pregnant cows, choose high-quality pastures to extend the grazing time, and supplement 1 to 2 kilograms of concentrated feed every day after grazing. At the same time, attention should be paid to prevent over-fat pregnant cows, especially first-born young cows, and to prevent overfeeding to avoid dystocia.
2. Do a good job of protecting pregnant cows. During the cow's pregnancy, care should be taken to prevent miscarriage and premature delivery. In practice, the following aspects should be paid attention to:
(1) The cows in the late pregnancy are grouped separately from other herds and graze alone in nearby pastures.
(2) In order to prevent the cows from colliding with each other, do not whip and drive them when grazing to prevent frightening the herd.
(3) Do not graze and drive away on rainy days to prevent slipping.
(4) Do not graze on dew grasslands, and do not allow cows to eat a large amount of young legume pastures that can easily produce gas, do not eat moldy fodder, and do not drink water with glacial ice.
Pregnant cows in the house should exercise about 2 hours a day to avoid over-fat or insufficient exercise. Pay attention to the observation of the cows in labor, and make preparations for delivery in time.
(2) Feeding management of lactating cows
A lactating cow is a cow that feeds a calf with its milk after calving. In recent years, with the continuous deepening and development of cattle breeding and improvement, Arongqi cattle have gradually developed in the direction of meat and milk, which has produced obvious social and economic benefits. Therefore, strengthening the feeding and management of lactating cows has very important practical significance.
1. Feeding management of lactating cows in shed. Cows are still in the recovery stage within 10 days of calving. Cows that are too fat or thin after calving must be properly reared. For frail cows, only high-quality hay should be fed within 3 days after delivery. After 4 days, they can be fed with appropriate amount of concentrated feed and juicy feed. Gradually increase the feed amount according to the recovery of the udder and digestive system, but increase the amount of concentrate daily It should not exceed 1 kg. When the milk edema disappears completely, the feed can be increased to normal. If the cow has no edema in the udder after delivery, has a healthy body and normal feces, it can be fed with juicy feed and concentrate on the first day after calving, and the normal feeding amount can be increased to 6-7 days.
The first fetus cows are prone to ketosis due to insufficient carbohydrate-rich concentrate in the feed and excessive protein intake, which can reduce blood sugar and increase ketone bodies in blood and urine. Great attention should be given in practice. When feeding breastfeeding cows for meat, it is generally advisable to feed them 3 times a day.
2. The grazing management of lactating cows. Because the green feed is rich in crude protein, contains various essential amino acids, vitamins, enzymes and trace elements, adequate exercise and sun bathing during the grazing period and the rich nutrients contained in the pasture can promote The metabolism of the bovine body improves the reproductive function, increases the milk production, enhances the health of the cows and calves, and improves the resistance to diseases. The following preparations should be done before grazing.
(1) Preparation of equipment for grazing ranch: before the grazing season comes, check and repair houses, sheds and fences; determine water sources and temporary rest points after drinking water; repair roads.
(2) The preparation of the herd: including hoof trimming; dehorning; repelling insects in and out of the body; checking the number of cows; weighing and grouping of cows, etc.
(3) Transition from house feeding to grazing: When cows are driven to grassland for grazing, they must be pre-fed with roughage, semi-dry storage and silage, and there must be sufficient cellulose in the diet to maintain normal rumen digestion . The summer transition period is 7-8 days, and there is very little juicy feed in the winter diet. The transition period should be 10-14 days. During the transition period, in order to prevent grass twitching, grazing for 2 to 3 hours a day, gradually transitioning to the last 12 hours a day.
(4) As forage grass contains more potassium and less sodium, special attention should be paid to the supply of salt to maintain the balance of sodium and potassium in the cattle. Salt supplement method: It can be fed in the cow's concentrate, or a salt trough can be set up where the cow drinks water for free licking.
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