Planning and construction technology of large-scale beef cattle breeding farm
The construction of the cattle breeding barn for community scale beef cattle must take into account factors such as the purpose of breeding, the scale of the conditions of the breeding site, and the cattle breeding facilities. When large-scale breeding, it is necessary to consider saving labor; when small-scale breeding, it is convenient to observe the state of each cow in detail, so as to give full play to the physiological characteristics of the cattle and improve economic benefits. Beef cattle breeding districts are usually set aside by local townships and villages. Individuals invest in the construction of cattle farms, raise them in separate households, and collectively invest in the establishment of veterinary rooms or service stations. This not only facilitates epidemic prevention, but also prevents environmental pollution, improves the level of breeding management and product quality. Although the forms of beef cattle breeding communities in different regions are different, the following principles should be followed:
1. Selection of the site of the community: The site selection of the beef cattle breeding community should follow the principle of selecting sites for large-scale fattening cattle farms. If the conditions are not met, the local conditions can also be adjusted to make full use of the local free space, but the transportation must be convenient to facilitate the in and out of feed and cattle.
2. The form of the community: Beef cattle breeding community mainly has three forms: self-reproduction and self-raising, shelf cattle fattening, self-reproduction and self-raising and shelf cattle fattening. Self-propagation and self-raising can make full use of roughage and reduce feeding costs, but the feeding cycle is long and capital turnover is slow, so it is suitable for areas with poor economic conditions. Shelf cattle fattening investment is relatively large, the demand for concentrated feed is large, the feeding cost is high, but the feeding cycle is short, the capital turnover is fast, and the economic benefits are high. The combination of self-reproduction and self-raising and fattening of shelf cattle can make full use of the advantages of the above two, but the feeding and management are complicated.
3. The layout and design of the community: The layout and design requirements of the beef cattle breeding community are similar to those of large-scale cattle farms. It should also include disinfection tanks, veterinary rooms, production cow houses, isolated cow houses, feed rooms, silos, ammoniated tanks, Manure storage yard, manure treatment facility, cattle loading platform and other facilities, but the division of living area and production area is not obvious. Cow houses are generally single-row, with 6-12 rooms in each building, owned by 1-2 households, 1- Two are feed rooms and dormitories, and the rest are cow houses. Each barn has 3-5 heads, and the division of basic barn, calving barn, calf breeding barn, growing barn and fattening barn is not obvious. The silage pond and the ammoniating pond are constructed by raising funds according to the scale of raising by each cattle farmer. Generally, the two ponds are combined into one, which can save investment and increase the utilization rate of equipment. Silo tanks and ammoniated tanks are generally located on both sides of the cow house for easy feeding.
4. The building of the cattle house in the community: The building of the cattle house in the beef cattle breeding community is also similar to that of a large-scale cattle farm, but the requirements are lower. Local materials can be fully utilized to reduce construction costs. In areas with warm climates, simple sheds can be built, which can save a lot of investment; in areas with hot summers and colder winters, you should build a stronger open cowshed or semi-open cowshed. Such a cowshed in summer It can ensure good ventilation. In winter, the cowshed is enclosed with plastic cloth and straw mats to facilitate heat preservation.
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