Cattle forage: the cultivation technology of Spartina
The rice grassland is produced on the south coast of England and is a natural hybrid of Spartina from the European coast and Spartina from the Americas. At present, it is cultivated in many countries such as Britain, Holland, Denmark, Australia, and the United States. The cultivation history of the world is more than 80 years. Introduced from the United States in the 1960s, my country has been successfully introduced and planted on the beaches of more than 50 coastal counties, starting from Jinxi, Liaoning in the north, and Dianbai, Guangdong in the south.
The tender leaves and rhizomes of rice grass have a sweet taste, and the grass powder has a delicate fragrance and good palatability. It is popular with horses, cattle, sheep and rabbits. According to the measurement, the crude protein content in the dry matter can reach 13% in the growth period, the crude protein content in the full flowering period is 9%, the crude fat is 2.28%~3.17%, the crude fiber is 13.75~28%, the calcium is 0.32%~0.77%, Phosphorus 0.2%~0.27%, carotene 23.95mg~38.29mg per kilogram, high content of glutamic acid and leucine. The digestibility of organic matter is as high as 60.86%, digestible energy is 10.34 megajoules per kilogram, and metabolizable energy is 8.37 megajoules per kilogram. It is evaluated as good forage. It produces 15,000 kg to 30,000 kg of fresh grass per hectare. Ricegrass can also increase soil organic matter, improve soil aggregate structure, make soft mud flats firm, promote siltation and waves, protect beaches, and improve saline soil. So Spartina is not only a good grass species for developing coastal animal husbandry and establishing beach pastures and forage grass bases, it is also an ideal plant for strengthening beaches and embankments and promoting siltation of land.
Spartina is a perennial herbaceous perennial plant of Spartina spp. The plant height is generally 30 cm ~ 70 cm, the highest can reach more than 1 meter. The root system is well-developed, the stalks are upright, tough, and not easy to fall down. The base axillary buds can germinate new tillers and underground stems, grow horizontally in the soil layer, and then bend and grow upward to form new plants. The leaves grow alternately, and the epidermal cells have a large number of milky protrusions, making it difficult for water to penetrate; there are salt glands on the back of the leaves, and most of the salt absorbed by the roots is excreted here. The panicle is 10 cm to 35 cm long, composed of 4 to 15 upright racemes; the spikelet contains 1 small flower, 14 mm to 18 mm long. Flowers bloom in succession from May to November, and bear fruit from October to December, with a low seed setting rate.
Spartina spartina has strong salt-tolerant and flood-tolerant properties, and can be planted in the tidal zone on the beach where other plants cannot grow. Because it is a wet plant, it has poor drought tolerance. It is impossible to survive on low beaches that are submerged in sea water for too long and lack of light. Rice grass is densely integrated into grass, which can withstand larger winds and waves. It can not only be born in seawater and saline soil, but also grow on freshwater neutral soil, soft and hard mud flats, and sandy beaches. The tillering power is particularly strong, which can increase from several tens to more than 100 times in the first year between the tides, and the pastures can be formed in a few years. High temperature resistance, the grass can grow tiller if the temperature is 40℃~42℃. It is intolerant to spring cold, and when the night temperature drops to more than -10°C, it will freeze to death. It is resistant to pollution from petroleum and phenol oil, and can absorb mercury and radioactive elements such as cesium, strontium and cadmium. Spartina is suitable for the mid-tide zone of the beach intertidal zone, and cannot take root on the eroded beach with too much wind and waves.
Rice grass should be cultivated in the middle tide zone of the beach. It is not suitable for planting near military ports and aquaculture farms.
Seedling Spartina generally does not need to be propagated by seeds, but ramets propagation method is adopted. Grow seedlings in large tanks or paddy fields, keep shallow water and apply fertilizer. Use 1~2 seedlings per tank, and the tank will grow up in 1 year.
Planting The bred seedlings are dug out with roots and underground stems. Every 5 ~ 10 plants are used as a cluster for seedlings, planted according to the row spacing of 2 to 3 meters, or 3 to 5 meters. The planting depth is 6 cm~10 cm, the depth should be deep if the wind and waves are large, and the shallow ones should be shallow. The planting time should be carried out during the monthly tidal tide to the high tide period, that is, the eleventh, twelfth, or twenty-seventh, twenty-eighth period of the lunar calendar, so as to reach the tide every day for more than five or six consecutive days after planting, so as to ensure that the grass seedlings take root .
In the first few months after planting, check seedlings, protect seedlings and supplement seedlings frequently. From the second year onwards, the ground part will be harvested cleanly every autumn and winter to facilitate the normal growth of new seedlings in the spring.
How to use
Spartina spartina has strong tillering and regeneration ability, so the yield is high.
The green-fed rice grass can be cut 3 times a year, the first time is from June to July, when the rice grass is heading; the second time is in mid-to-late September, when the regenerated grass grows to about 30 cm; Three times were mowed in early and mid-November, that is, before winter. When mowing, you should choose a sunny day. After each cutting, airing until the leaves are wilted, can be chopped or fed directly to livestock and poultry, and can also be fermented to feed pigs. If the cut grass cannot be fed in the near future, it can also be silaged or sun-dried hay or crushed into grass powder for storage, and fed to livestock and poultry when there is no grass.
Grazing cattle, horses, sheep, deer and other domestic animals can be grazing on the beach rice grass pastures throughout the year. It can also be used to feed rabbits. It should be noted that when grazing, it is necessary to divide the grazing area to facilitate the growth of regenerated grass.
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