What technical equipment and facilities does the dairy farm need to prepare?
1. Cowshed facilities and equipment Generally, the main facilities in the cattle house include: cow bed and tethering equipment, feeding equipment, drinking water equipment, manure cleaning equipment, and other related facilities such as the playground outside the house.
(1) Cow bed Cow bed must ensure that the cows rest comfortably and quietly, keep the cow body clean, convenient for milking operations (when milking in the house) and easy to clean. The cow bed should have a suitable slope, usually 1~1.5%. At present, the cow bed is made of cement surface layer, and the back half is marked for slip resistance. In winter, in order to reduce the impact of cold on the production of dairy cows, it is necessary to add cushions in the cow bed. It is best to use rubber and other materials as the surface layer of the cow bed. 1. Tie up and raise the cow bed 2. Raise the cow bed in a loose pen
(2) Tethering equipment Tethering equipment is used to limit the range of movement of the cattle in the bed. The form of tethering equipment includes soft chain type and hard joint neck frame type. (3) Feeding equipment Cow feeding facilities include feed loading, transportation, distribution equipment and feed channel facilities. There are two commonly used feeding methods: using a single type of complete diet compound feed, that is, using silage and compound feed to make a mixed feed; when feeding in a house, most of the concentrate is fed during milking. The silage is taken in the sports field or in the trough in the house, and the green and hay are generally fed on the sports field. (4) Drinking water equipment The drinking water equipment in the cattle shed includes a conveying pipeline and an automatic drinking fountain or water tank. (5) Manure removal equipment in the house 1. Manure removal channel and ditch 2. Manure removal methods and equipment. The manure removal methods of the cow house include mechanical manure removal, water flushing manure removal, and manual manure removal. Many dairy farms in my country use artificial manure removal. Mechanical manure removal
2. Milking center and milking equipment
(1) The layout of the milking center The location of the milking parlor generally adopts the following two layout forms: 1. The milking parlor is located in the center of the dairy cow barn area 2. The milking parlor is located on one side of the multiple dairy cow barns.
(2) Milking equipment 1. Requirements for milking equipment In order to prevent the milking equipment from causing harmful stimulation to the cows, increase milk production, reduce diseases and reduce milk pollution, the following requirements are imposed on the milking equipment. (1) Physiological requirements (2.) Technical requirements 2. Milking equipment types Mechanical milking devices are divided into the following types according to the form: bucket type, pipeline type, milking parlor type, mobile type and milking type Milk robot. Which type of milking device to choose is mainly determined by the scale of the dairy farm and the method of feeding. (1) Bucket milking device: mainly used in tethered cow houses of small and medium-sized cattle farms, consisting of a milking device and a vacuum device. (2) Pipe-type milking device: suitable for tethered cow houses on medium-sized cattle farms. It consists of the following six parts. Vacuum system, vacuum pipeline, milk pipeline, milking cluster, milk collection system and cleaning and disinfection system. (3) Mobile milking device: suitable for milking on pastures with a large range of cows. (4) Milking parlor-type milking device: The milking parlor-type milking system is suitable for specialized dairy farms, where the milk is raised loosely and in pens.
(3) The layout of the milking parlour The milking parlour is the most important part of the milking center. It is equipped with different forms and different milking stalls according to different needs. Each milking stall has a milking machine and milk. Meters, milk conveying equipment, washing equipment, etc. Common milking stations have the following forms. 1. Horizontal type 2. Tandem 3. Side entry type 4. Fishbone 5. Rotary (four) hoof bathing hoof baths are directly set up on the cow's return passage. The dairy farm can perform hoof baths 1 to 2 times a week according to actual needs.
Pay attention to the following points when designing:
(1) Since the hoof bath is set on the return channel, the speed of the cows returning to the cow house is slowed down, so the hoof bath should be as far away as possible from the milking table to reduce its impact.
(2) The hoof bath is the same width as the return channel, 15cm deep, and must be able to hold at least 10cm deep liquid. The minimum length is 220cm, with corresponding slopes at both ends.
(3) In order to prevent a large amount of cow hoof dirt from falling into the hoof bath and contaminating the disinfectant, the cows can be allowed to pass through the clean pool before hoof bath.
3. Silage facilities and silage equipment There are four main ways of silage, that is, silage silage, silage tower, plastic bag silage and ground storage. Different silage methods and corresponding supporting facilities can be selected according to different conditions and dosages.
1. The cellar site selection silage cellar should be built close to the cowshed, the terrain should be high dry, easy to drain, away from water sources and manure pits, and avoid building cellars in low-lying places or under the shade of trees to prevent water leakage, air leakage and collapse.
2. Cellar shape and specifications The small silage cellar has a roof width of 2.0~4.0m, a depth of 2.0~3.0m, and a length of 3.0~15.0m; the large cellar has a width of 10.0~15.0m, a depth of 3.0~3.5m, and a length of 30.0~50.0m.
3. The walls of the pit for pit construction should be smooth. If it is used for a long time, it is best to make a permanent pit. The four corners of the rectangular cellar are curved to facilitate the sinking of the silage material and remove residual air.
4. The calculation of the silage volume and the weight of the silage. The width and depth of the silage depends on the amount of silage fed daily, and it is usually appropriate that the digging amount of the daily reclaiming is not less than 15cm. After the width and depth are determined, the length of the silage pit can be calculated according to the required amount of silage, and the weight of the silage material can also be calculated according to the volume of the silage pit and the bulk density of the silage raw materials.
5. Loading and unloading equipment The silage kiln can be loaded by the green forage chopper at the same time as it is shredded, or it can be transported back and unloaded by the trailer behind the green forage harvester.
(2) Ground storage Ground storage is a relatively simple method. Choose a dry, flat place, preferably a concrete floor. Cover the sides with plastic film, or you can build low walls around them, and add green material after spreading the feed film. Generally, the pile height is 1.5~2.0m, the width is 1.5~2.0m, and the pile length is 3~5m. The top is compacted with soil or heavy objects. This form has a small reserve and a short storage period, which is suitable for small-scale breeding.
(3) Plastic bag storage using plastic bag silage has the following advantages: low investment, quick effect, high comprehensive benefit; good silage quality, high crude protein content, low crude fiber content, high digestibility, good palatability, and feed intake High, fragrant smell; minimal loss and waste, mildew loss, fluid loss and feeding loss are greatly reduced; long storage period, up to 1 to 2 years; not affected by seasons, sun, rainfall and groundwater level It can be stacked in the open; it can be harvested and dried in a centralized manner to complete the silage production in a short time; it is convenient to store and take feeding; it saves the construction and maintenance costs of the cellar; saves the land and labor occupied by the cellar; saves the labor of the cellar ; Does not pollute the environment; easy to transport and commercialize. The necessary condition is that the silage raw materials are cut short and finely sliced, sprayed or put into a plastic bag, exhausted and compressed, and then tied. If there is no aspirator, it should be packed tightly and the weight should be compressed.
Fourth, beef cattle farm facilities and equipment
(1) The cow bed can be plastered with cement, which has good thermal conductivity, sturdiness and durability, and is easy to clean and disinfect.
(2) Feeding troughs Feeding troughs have two types, fixed and movable, which are set in front of the cow bed.
(3) Sink The sink is an indispensable facility in the house like the feeding trough. You can use an automatic drinking fountain or a sink with a tap. Water tanks in cold areas require protection against cold and frost. If necessary, warm water can be used in winter.
(4) Manure removal channel The manure removal channel is also a channel for cattle to enter and exit. The manure removal channel generally needs to be set with a certain slope and anti-skid grooves.
(5) Manure and urine ditch Artificial manure removal cow house generally has a manure and urine ditch between the cow bed and the passage, and the manure and urine ditch is required to be leak-free and smooth. The ditch is 30-40 cm wide and 10-15 cm deep, with a longitudinal drainage slope of 1 to 2%.
(6) Feed channel The feed channel is set at the front end of the feeding trough, generally 10 cm above the ground, and the width is generally 1.5 to 2 cm.
(7) A sports field shall be set up in a cow house for breeding cattle and calves. The playground is mostly set up in the empty area between the buildings, surrounded by fences, and the cattle are scattered or tied inside. The sports field is suitable for three groups of land. Replenishment troughs and water troughs should be set up in sports grounds. Fattening cattle generally need to reduce exercise, tether to the sports field to rest after feeding, and reduce feed consumption and increase weight gain. For breeding cows, adequate exercise and sunbathing should be ensured every day. The bull should be forced to exercise to ensure health.
(8) Other equipment
1. Management equipment: It mainly includes equipment for brushing the bovine body, tethering equipment, equipment for cleaning the livestock house, and weight testing equipment. In addition, it is also necessary to be equipped with ear tags, bloodless castration equipment, body size measuring equipment, etc.
2. Feed production and transportation equipment. Beef cattle farm equipment also includes veterinary epidemic prevention equipment, on-site and off-site transportation equipment, and public engineering equipment, etc.
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