Classification and nutritional value of Beef cattle Concentrated feed
Concentrate supplements are also called . This type of feed has a small volume, low crude fiber content, high digestible nutrients, and rich nutritional value. It mainly includes crop seeds and their processing by-products, which can be divided into two categories: energy feed and protein feed.
1. Energy feed. Refers to feed with crude fiber content of less than 18% and crude protein content of less than 20% in dry matter. Mainly include cereals, bran, tubers and fruits, fats and molasses.
(1) Cereals. Basically mature seeds of gramineous plants, mainly including corn, wheat, barley, sorghum, oats, rice, etc. The main feature is that they are rich in nitrogen-free extracts, which can account for 70% to 80% of the dry matter. It is starch, so it has high digestibility and good palatability; high effective energy value and high fattening net energy; it contains about 3.5% crude fat, which is mainly unsaturated fatty acids, and the proportion of linoleic acid and linolenic acid is high; protein Low content, 8.9%~13.5%, poor quality, and insufficient lysine and tryptophan; crude fiber content is low, generally below 5%, only barley with glumes, oats and other crude fibers can reach about 10% ; Low mineral content, less calcium and more phosphorus, unbalanced ratio, low trace element content; lack of vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin B12, and vitamin B2.
(2) Bran. That is, the processing by-products of cereals, mainly including bran, rice bran, etc. Its main feature is that protein, fat and crude fiber are more than seeds, while the digestibility and effective energy of nitrogen-free extracts are about half lower than that of cereals; calcium , Phosphorus is higher than Gushi, but still less calcium and more phosphorus. The B vitamins are rich in content, but lack of carotene, vitamin A, vitamin D, and vitamin E; the content of trace elements is higher than that of grains; the physical structure is loose and contains a moderate amount of cellulose, which has a laxative effect; strong water absorption and easy to mold Deterioration, not easy to store.
(3) Roots, tubers and fruits. The biggest feature of this type of feed is its high moisture content, ranging from 75% to 90%. In terms of dry matter, crude fiber <10%, the content is low; the nitrogen-free extract content is higher, 67.5%~88.1% (and most of them are easily digestible sugars, starch, etc.), so the digestibility is higher; protein The content is small, and most of them are non-protein nitrogenous substances (amides); less calcium and phosphorus; more carotene, but insufficient B vitamins; high digestibility. This type of feed mainly includes sweet potatoes, potatoes, cassava, carrots, and beets for feeding.
2. Protein feed. Refers to feed with crude fiber content of less than 18% and crude protein content of more than 20% in dry matter, also called protein supplement. It mainly includes plant protein feed, animal protein feed, single cell protein feed, and non-protein nitrogen feed.
(1) Plant protein feed. This type of feed is most used in beef cattle production, including soybean and oil crop seeds and their meal, such as soybean meal, cottonseed meal, rapeseed meal, peanut meal, linseed meal, sunflower meal, etc. . It is characterized by high protein content (30%~45%) and good quality, especially the high content of lysine lacking in cereal seeds.
(2) Animal protein feed. Including meat meal, blood meal, meat and bone meal, fish meal, feather meal, etc., such feeds are prone to oxidative rancidity and bacterial infection. Recently, many countries in the European Union and my country have banned the addition of animal protein feed to cattle feed.
(3) Single-cell protein feed. It is the general term for certain single-celled organisms or multicellular organisms with simple structure. It mainly includes yeast, non-pathogenic bacteria, fungi, microalgae and certain protozoa. Yeast is currently used more frequently.
(4) Non-protein nitrogen feed. It is a collective term for urea, double shrinking veins and certain ammonia salts. According to the physiological characteristics of ruminant nitrogen cycle in ruminant livestock, it can be used as a nitrogen source for rumen microbes to synthesize protein.
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