Cashmere goat breeding technology and matters needing attention
It is not difficult to breed cashmere goats. It can be raised in grazing mode or in captivity, especially where there are breeding conditions. Long-term grazing can reduce a lot of breeding costs. For friends who want to raise cashmere goats, the basic breeding techniques need to be familiar and mastered.
1. Construction of Cashmere Goat Farm
1. Building address and sheep shed. Sheep shelters should be built in places with high terrain, spaciousness, good drainage and ventilation, and sunlight. Sheep shelters require warm in winter and cool in summer. Generally, a semi-open plastic greenhouse is built with a span of about 7 meters, the back wall is 1.8 to 2 meters high, the ridge height is 2.5 to 2.9 meters, and the front wall is 1.3 to 1.5 meters high. Calculated for each sheep of 1.5-2 square meters.
2. Facilities in the house. In the house, the sheep pens are divided into ram pens, ewe pens, lamb pens, fattening pens, etc. with movable steel or wooden fences. There are grass racks, forage troughs and drinking equipment in the circle. The feeding trough can be flexible or movable. Generally, the bottom of the trough is about 20 cm above the ground. The trough is wide at the top and narrow at the bottom, with the top width 25 cm and the bottom width 20 cm. , The depth is 10-15 cm, and the length is calculated based on each 30 cm slot. The grass frame can be built along the wall. The distance between the grass frame grids is generally 15-20 cm, and the length is calculated as 30-35 cm each. Drinking equipment can use drinking fountains, sinks, etc. according to the situation.
3. Sports field and pergola. In order to ensure that the cashmere goats have enough exercise, a fenced sports field should be built with an area of 3 to 4 times that of the sheep shed. At the same time, a pergola with the same area as the sheep shed should be built in the sports field to prevent heat in summer.
4. Medicine bath. Large breeding households build a single bath or multiple small-scale breeding households to build a common bath, about 1 meter deep, about 10 meters long, 30-60 cm wide at the bottom, 60-80 cm wide at the top, with steep slope at the entrance and the exit Build a sloped trickle table to facilitate the flow of liquid medicine.
2. Feeding and management of cashmere goats
1. Feed requirements. Forage grass is prepared at 1.5 kg per day, and the concentrate is prepared at 60 kg per year. Forage grass is green hay, silage or crop straw. Concentrate is a mixture prepared according to the different physiological stages of sheep and the condition of roughage. Forage planting According to the different conditions of each breeding factory, generally 15-20 cashmere goats should plant at least one mu of high-quality forage grass, such as alfalfa, forage corn, Hercules, and sweet sorghum.
2. Silage. In order to ensure the supply of green and succulent feed for cashmere goats in winter and spring, each cashmere goat should have 0.3 to 0.5 cubic meters of silage.
3. Raising of lambs. After the ewes give birth to lambs, we must strengthen the care of the lambs to prevent crushing. Colostrum is rich in nutrients and plays an extremely important role in the growth and development of lambs. Therefore, lambs should be allowed to eat as early as possible and eat more colostrum. The earlier you eat, the more you eat, the faster the increase, the stronger the physique, and the sickness. The less, the higher the survival rate. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the feeding and management of colostrum for lambs.
4. Breeding ewes. In the spring, the breeding ewes have lambed or entered the later stages of pregnancy. At this time, the fetus develops rapidly, and 80% of its body weight grows within these two months. Therefore, there should be adequate and complete nutrition, the metabolic level should be increased by 15%-20% on the basis of the pre-pregnancy, the calcium and phosphorus content should be increased by 40%-50%, and there should be sufficient vitamin A and vitamin D. Each animal should be supplemented with 0.6 to 0.8 kilograms of mixed concentrate per day, and 3 to 5 grams of bone meal should be supplemented daily, and more juicy feed should be given about 10 days before delivery. In addition, management should be strengthened to prevent crowding and frightening groups. Daily activities should be "slow and stable", and must not eat moldy feed and frozen feed to prevent miscarriage. For lactating ewes, within 2 months after delivery, breast milk is an important nutrient for lambs, and the nutritional supply of the ewes should be ensured. Generally, each ewe is supplemented with 1 to 2 kilograms of juicy feed and 0.6 to 1 kilogram of mixed concentrate per day. The management of lactating ewes should pay attention to controlling the amount of concentrate. Within 1 to 3 days after delivery, the ewes should not be fed too much concentrate, and they should not drink cold or ice water. The feed intake of lambs should be increased before weaning, and the amount of juicy feed and concentrate feeding of the ewe should be gradually reduced to prevent breast disease. The ewe shed should be cleaned and disinfected frequently, and the afterbirth and hairballs and other dirt should be removed in time to prevent the lamb from being swallowed. Lambs are generally weaned around 2 months of age.
5. In the daily captive breeding of cashmere goats, pay attention to the salt water supply while supplementing the mixed feed 1-2 times a day, and drinking light salt water 4-6 times a day. The amount of salt added can be 8-10 per sheep. Gram calculation. The pens should pay attention to environmental sanitation. The sheep pens should be ventilated and moisture-proof, keep the sheep pens clean and dry, and do a good job in the prevention and treatment of parasites such as scabies. Daily feed and drinking water must be kept clean. Do not feed moldy, deteriorating, toxic and foreign matter feed, and keep the feeding utensils clean. Sheep sheds and sports fields should be cleaned frequently and disinfected regularly.
Three, fleece method
Fleece is generally carried out in April to May. Sheep is best to use shearing before two years of age, and fleece is used after two years of age. Fleece is best done in two, with an interval of about 20 days between the two, or you can grab it once. Sheep should be fasted for more than 12 hours before fleeing. When fleeing, be sure to set the sheep well. Generally, let the sheep lie on its side and tie the two front legs and one back leg together with a rope. First use scissors to cut off the floating hair, then use a thin comb to gently comb the debris from the hair clump from front to back, then use a dense comb to comb from back to front repeatedly, and then comb from front to back until the The fluff fibers that fall off are combed. When combing, the movements should be light to avoid the comb teeth scratching the body. Be careful with pregnant ewes to prevent mechanical damage and cause miscarriage. Weigh after combing, register and put in storage. Choose a sunny day when combing, and do not get the sheep exposed to rain for a few days after combing to prevent illness.
Four, cashmere goat breeding matters needing attention
1. From group release to single release
The advantage of single release is that it can be managed carefully. Especially for small cashmere goats, it can adapt to the life of eating grass faster and get out of breastfeeding as soon as possible, thereby promoting growth and speeding up development.
2. Change the time of producing sheep
Generally speaking, the growth cycle of cashmere goats is maintained at about 9 months. After 9 months, cashmere goats can be sold. Generally, the baby lamb is born in spring. Nowadays, in order to better save resources, we can welcome the birth of lambs in winter, so as to prevent cashmere goats from being cold and losing fat when the next winter arrives, which will affect the amount of fluff and meat produced and improve the economic benefits of cashmere goats.
3. Seasonal management
Combined with the corresponding seasonal temperature characteristics, for example, the autumn weather is high and fresh, and it is also the harvest season, the frequency of grazing can be appropriately increased. For another example, in winter, when the temperature is low and the sheep are lazy and afraid of moving, try to reduce the number of grazing as long as you ensure adequate nutrition. If in summer, choose to graze in the morning or evening, because the temperature is slightly lower than during the day, and cashmere goats are more willing to walk.
4. Rough feeding becomes fine feeding
According to different growth periods of cashmere goats, different refined feeds are provided. For example, for lambs or pregnant sheep, it is necessary to ensure fine feed to maintain nutritional requirements.
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