High-efficiency breeding management technology of black goat
1 Current status of black goat breeding
1) Lower reproduction rate. At present, the reproduction rate of the black goat population is low. The reason is that the farmers lack scientific breeding concepts and did not select high-quality breeding rams for breeding. Inbreeding in the flock is common, and there is no introduction of excellent genes from the outside world. The quality of the group is declining and degenerating more and more.
2) Lack of abundant feed. Black goats are mainly grazing. Green fodder and crude fiber feed are the main types of feed. The feed form is relatively simple, and the protein required for the growth of the flock cannot be supplied adequately, causing malnutrition and easily leading to the death of some black goats.
3) Simple growth environment. In general, the construction of black goat pens is relatively simple, the functional pens are relatively lacking, there is no good disinfection mechanism, and the facilities and equipment for breeding are simple. Under this condition, the flock is susceptible to weather, and is more susceptible to the threat of bacteria and viruses, which makes the flock unable to reproduce in large numbers and quickly.
4) Lack of management in cold seasons. When the cold season of autumn and winter comes, it is also a season with frequent epidemics. Often farmers lack the corresponding epidemic prevention and control experience and safety awareness, and neglect the daily management, resulting in a situation where the sheep are prone to illness and death.
2 Black goat breeding technology
1) Seed selection. Good breeds are the basis of black goat breeding, and good production performance is the key to creating economic benefits. Therefore, the breeding females and rams with good production performance and genetic stability should be selected for breeding in sheep breeding, and at the same time, inbreeding should be avoided. Excellent genes can strengthen the black goat population.
2) The mix of feed. In order to breed black goats scientifically, the black goats must be raised in groups according to different species, and fed with different forages. Some feeds are also needed as nutritional supplements. This can not only meet the different nutritional needs of the sheep, but also alleviate the feeding. The reduction of grass will help the pasture to restore productivity.
3) Improve the growth environment of sheep. The pens for black goats should be built in places far away from residential areas, water sources, and no history of sheep disease infection, and the terrain is dry, sunny, and well-ventilated. It is built from the north to the south, and there is enough space for activities. The living space should not be too narrow. Each functional house is fully equipped, with cold-proof and cooling facilities, and a large enough sports field to ensure the movement of the sheep.
4) Keep clean and tidy, and disinfect regularly. It is very important to maintain the sanitation of the pens. As the saying goes, “pigs clean the sheep”, “the sheep cannot lie wet” and “warm the three-point fat”, farmers should maintain the sanitation of the pens and clean up the feces and other dirt in time. It is transported to a certain distance away from the pen for harmless treatment, while keeping the pen dry and ventilated, and insisting on killing mosquitoes and rodents, cutting off the vectors of infectious diseases to reduce the spread of diseases. Regular disinfection should be done every time, without leaving a dead corner. Routine disinfection is about 2 times a week. The disinfectant can be 10% to 20% quicklime water, caustic soda, Baidusha and other agents, but caustic soda should be avoided. Sheep body contact eliminates pathogenic bacteria in the environment and reduces the occurrence of diseases.
5) Carry out deworming and immunization work. Black goats are highly resistant to disease and rarely get sick. However, in daily breeding, the sheep still need timely epidemic prevention. Once sick sheep in the flock, they must be isolated and treated as soon as possible. If the treatment fails, the body will die. Proper and harmless treatment is required, and random disposal is prohibited. At the same time, farmers must do a good job of deworming every day, because most of the diseases of black goats are caused by parasites inside and outside the body, and if the goat has been diagnosed with parasitic diseases, it will also cause other diseases, which may affect the sheep. The growth and development speed of the sheep and the wasting disease will cause the death of the sheep and cause the economic loss of the farmers. It is very important to carry out regular deworming work. Generally speaking, worms are dewormed once every 2 to 3 months, and vaccines are required every year, especially for infectious pleuropneumonia vaccine . Immunization is an effective way for sheep to resist diseases, improve resistance, and help the growth and reproduction of sheep.
6) Pay attention to seasonality. Most of the sheep in the spring are in a state of poor condition and weak physical strength. At this time, house feeding should be the main breeding method. Green hay and ammoniated forage can be used for house feeding. In summer and autumn, the grassland grows luxuriantly and has good quality. It is a favorable stage for grasping fat and fertilizing. It requires careful grazing. It is worth noting that the summer temperature is relatively high, and when the flocks graze, choose hillside grazing to prevent the flocks from heatstroke. At the same time, the grassland needs to be replaced regularly to make full use of forage grass. In winter, we must do a good job of preventing cold and keeping warm, especially the nursing of newborn lambs and old, weak, sick and disabled sheep.
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