Principles of site selection for large-scale cattle farms
In recent years, due to the high price of beef and the huge potential for breeding benefits, beef cattle breeding has developed rapidly, and large-scale cattle farms have sprung up. However, many cattle farms have many defects in site selection, which are unfavorable for future production and development.
The general principle for the selection of cattle farm sites is to comply with the three-zone division principle, and at the same time, careful consideration, overall planning and long-term planning should be required. It must be combined with the agricultural and animal husbandry development plan, the farmland capital construction plan and the current housing construction plan, and must be adapted to the needs of the modern cattle raising industry. The selected site should have room for development. Site selection should generally follow the following principles:
1. Terrain: Gaozao, leeward and sunny, groundwater level below 2m, with gentle slope (1%-3%, maximum 25%), high in the north and low in the south, generally flat. It must not be built in low depressions, depressions or low air vents, so as to avoid difficulty in drainage, accumulation of water in flood season and difficulty in preventing cold in winter.
2. Terrain: open and tidy, ideally square and rectangular, avoiding long and narrow and polygonal corners.
3. Water source: There must be sufficient water source that meets the hygienic requirements and is easy to use to ensure production, living and drinking water for humans and animals. The water quality is good and does not contain poisons, ensuring the safety and health of humans and animals.
4. Soil quality: sandy loam soil is ideal, sandy soil is more suitable, and clay soil is the most unsuitable. Sandy loam soil is soft, strong in compression resistance and water permeability, low in hygroscopicity and thermal conductivity, and weak in capillary action. Rainwater and urine are not easy to accumulate, and there is no induration after rain, which is conducive to the cleaning and hygienic drying of cowsheds and sports fields, and is conducive to preventing the occurrence of hoof diseases and other diseases.
5. Meteorology: It is necessary to comprehensively consider local meteorological factors, such as maximum temperature, minimum temperature, humidity, annual rainfall, main wind direction, wind force, etc., to select favorable terrain.
6. Social contact: It should be convenient for epidemic prevention. It is 500 meters downwind from village settlements, 500 meters away from major traffic roads (roads and railways), and 1500 meters away from chemical plants and livestock products processing plants. Resources, especially roughage resources, are abundant, and try to avoid the surrounding feedlots of the same scale to avoid competition for raw materials. In line with the requirements of veterinary hygiene and environmental hygiene, there is no source of infection around, and there is no animal endemic disease.
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