High-efficiency feeding technology of winter lamb
Lamb meat is loved by people because of its tenderness and easy digestion, less fat, and more lean meat. Supplementary feeding of lamb in winter can make it grow faster, increase feed return rate, shorten fattening time, and quickly cultivate high-standard lambs. The meat yield rate, slaughter rate and commodity rate are effectively improved, and the meat quality is good. It has the advantages of short production cycle, low cost, fast lamb weight gain and high economic efficiency.
Opportunistic supplementary feeding
In order to reduce feeding costs, some farmers are reluctant to feed lambs and will limit the use of low-cost summer pastures. However, supplementary feeding can ensure that the lamb becomes a ruminant with complete digestion function, that is, at a relatively young age, it can eat the mixed feed well to increase weight, especially the double lamb and triple lamb usually after supplementary feeding It can increase daily weight gain and can make lambs go to market at a younger age. Under normal circumstances, supplementary feeding of lambs can reach the market weight 1 to 2 months in advance, shorten the feeding cycle, reduce the total amount of feed used by the lambs to maintain the nutrients needed by the body, not only reduce feeding costs, but also increase the economic income of farmers. Reduce the chances of lamb death, illness or injury. Lambs born in winter will be more beneficial if they can be marketed before the onset of the hot summer. At the same time, lambs enter the fattening farm at a younger age, allowing the farm to use the existing pasture to raise more ewes.
Lambs fed supplements during the lactation phase are more effective than feeding after weaning. Lambs start chewing food at 1 week of age, but they still rely on breast milk to provide most of their nutrition until 3 to 4 weeks of age. Therefore, the consumption of daily supplements is usually less than the average daily weight gain, that is, the feed conversion efficiency per unit supplement intake is quite high. Although lambs do not start to consume a large amount of feed until 3 to 4 weeks of age, the small amount of supplements they consume is essential for establishing normal rumen function and developing feeding habits. Lambs 10 to 120 days old generally consume 0.68 kg of supplements per day, of which 0.07 kg is consumed at 3 weeks of age, 0.45 to 0.68 kg at 40 to 50 days of age, and 1.36 kg at 120 days of age.
Supplementary feeding skills
To make the supplementary feeding successful, the key is to let the lamb eat the supplement as soon as possible. The supplement does not have to be very complicated. The effect of a single diet prepared by lambs from pastures and a compound diet are usually the same, but the combined supplement is more palatable. Young lambs seem to prefer soybean meal, corn, bran and sweet feeds, and these feeds should be selected as raw materials for feed when supplementing.
Lambs should start supplementary feeding at the age of 7 to 10 days. At this time, 1 fresh egg, 4 ml of cod liver oil, 2 g of salt can be mixed with 100 ml of boiled water, and then fed to the lamb when it cools to 38°C to 40°C. 4-6 times a day, 50 ml each time. Ewes and lambs usually live together and do not separate. Do not let the lamb feel that they are trapped and separated from the ewe. The supplementary feeding pen should be set up where the lamb is easy to approach but the ewe cannot approach. The ewe and the lamb can see each other during supplementary feeding. Lamb supplementary feeding places are as attractive as possible to the lamb, such as sunny, warm, dry and other places that are more attractive to the lamb. Lamb beds with bedding should be placed in the supplementary feeding area for young animals, and the feeding trough should be kept clean. In the supplementary feeding area or as close as possible to the supplementary feeding area, there should be drinking facilities. If lighting equipment is installed above the feeding trough, the feed intake of the lamb can be increased. In short, if the lamb supplementary feeding area is set up reasonably, then the lambs will also like to rest in the supplementary feeding area.
Ewes and lambs can also be driven to a relatively small space around the supplementary feeding pen at night. Since the lambs do not like being squeezed by the ewe, the supplementary feeding pen will be used as a refuge. There are also breeders who put 1 to 2 ewes in the supplementary feeding pen for a short period of time, and this method induces lambs to enter the supplementary feeding pen. Although the ewes consume supplementary feed, they can only consume a limited amount of feed.
Lambs with normal growth and development and weaned or about to be weaned should be selected for fattening. Different types of lambs have different fattening timings. In order to achieve the best fattening effect, usually fatten lambs are fattened after weaning and the concentrate formula is adjusted. However, lambs with less body fat are fattened 1 to 2 weeks after weaning. Ordinary lamb can use conventional fattening formula. Meat sheep are generally used as fattening lambs, and fattening lambs can also be produced through artificial cultivation. The specific method is to do supplementary feeding work for the late pregnancy period of the ewe to ensure its nutritional balance, so that the weight of the lambs produced at weaning can reach 20-30 kg . The feed required for fattening is mainly corn, silage, high-quality pasture and other feeds and premixes. Under normal circumstances, lamb fattening requires about 3 kg of silage per day
Lamb fattening chooses leguminous hay and cereal feed, and the proportion of the former is generally 40% to 50%, and the latter 50% to 60%. In general coarse feed diets, wild hay can account for 10% to 20%, corn stalks, bean straw and other crop stalks can account for 40% to 50%, and straw micro-storage or silage corn can account for 40% to 50%. The formula of fattening lamb concentrate feed is corn 65%, bean cake 21%, bran 10%, stone powder 1.7%, salt and baking soda each 1%, mineral trace elements and vitamin additives 0.3%.
Fattening sheep's diet contains less coarse feed and too much concentrated feed, which easily leads to digestive diseases, affects the growth and development of lambs, and is not conducive to fattening. Therefore, coarse feed should not be less than 55% of the ration, and concentrated feed should not be more than 45% of the ration. At the same time, adequate and clean drinking water should be provided, preferably 3 to 4 times a day. If lambs lose their appetite during the fattening process, dry beer lees and salt can be added to the concentrate to promote the lamb's appetite. In short, at all stages of fattening, we should pay attention to the weight gain and health of lambs, and adjust fattening methods and technical programs accordingly.
Lambs are separated from their mothers, and the temperature regulation center is not yet fully developed, and the warm sun in winter is between 11 am and 3 pm. The lamb house should be built in a place leeward to the sun, covered with windshield, window glass should be wiped clean to facilitate lighting, and plastic film should be used to seal and block loopholes to prevent wind. Maintain a moderate stocking density and keep the air flowing. Before the arrival of low temperature and severe cold weather, comprehensive inspections should be carried out on infrastructure such as water, electricity, roads, livestock and poultry pens, silos, storage silos, fences, etc., and timely reinforcement of damaged livestock and poultry houses to prevent collapses. Hang curtains to block the vents, and close the aisles in the middle of the pens at any time to prevent thieves, draughts, and sweeping winds. Make sure that there is no rain on the top, no wind on the side, and grass on the ground, and timely clean up the stagnant water and the ground is not damp, so as to prevent cold and warm.
In case of rain or snow, prevent the lamb from getting wet by rain, clear the snow in time to prevent the pen collapsed. Infrared heating lamps, stoves and other heating facilities should be hung in the pen. When using coal stoves and carbon stoves for heating, pay attention to safe heating and ventilation. The chimneys of coal stoves and carbon stoves must be led out of the shed to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning. Protective devices should be installed around the heating facilities in the house to prevent scalding lambs. . During the day, let the lambs spend more time outdoors in the sun, receive fresh air and sunlight, increase the content of vitamin D and cholesterol in the body, promote the development of the lamb's bones, enhance resistance, and create a clean and warm living environment for the lamb.
Personnel and vehicles entering the site should be strictly disinfected, and it is strictly forbidden to enter the production area. The fattening of grazing lambs should be dewormed and hoof repair, and the fattening of lambs in the house should be dewormed. Usually use sprays and medicated baths to repel worms, and can also inject or take abamectin, albendazole, etc. Vaccinations should be taken to prevent common infectious diseases. In general, fattening lambs are given intramuscular or subcutaneous injections of triple vaccine, five vaccines, sheep vaccinia and sheep foot-and-mouth vaccine.
Lamb sore is also a common disease. The disease is caused by goat pustular dermatitis virus, which forms papules, ulcers or verrucous scabs on the skin of the mouth and lips. This disease is a viral infectious disease that seriously affects the health of lambs. Therefore, once the lamb is sick, it should be isolated immediately, with external medicine such as potassium permanganate, iodine tincture, glycerin, purple syrup, erythromycin ointment, etc., and the pens and utensils should be thoroughly disinfected.
Pneumonia is also a disease with a high incidence of lambs, mainly caused by malnutrition, lack of vitamins, and premature weaning. To prevent lamb pneumonia, it is necessary to strengthen the feeding and management of lambs, and to feed enough breast milk to keep the lambs dry, warm, and well ventilated. To prevent pneumonia, penicillin or streptomycin can be injected intramuscularly twice a day.
Lambs are susceptible to white muscle disease, which is a trace element deficiency accompanied by degeneration of skeletal muscle and myocardium, dyskinesia and acute myocardial necrosis. Sick lambs will have symptoms such as lack of energy, arched back, difficulty in movement, and weakness of limbs. If this disease is found, selenium preparations should be used for intramuscular injection in time, strengthen the feeding and management of the ewe, and provide high-quality legume forages, so that the ewe can get selenium before lambing, which can also reduce the occurrence of this disease.
Mineral deficiency is also a common symptom of lambs. Diseased lambs are mainly characterized by thinner, coarse coat, weakened appetite, grinding teeth, dry mouth, gray and white feces, and often licking, biting and swallowing foreign bodies, especially the wall Ring soil. Mineral additives and trace elements such as selenium and iron should be supplemented early.
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