The harmless treatment technology of cow dung
Cow manure contains 14.5% organic matter, 0.30%-0.45% nitrogen, 0.15%-0.25% phosphorus, and 0.10%-0.15% potassium. It is a valuable resource that can be used by the planting industry as a source of soil fertilizer. The organic matter and nutrient content of cow dung is the lowest among all kinds of livestock, with fine texture, high water content, slow decomposition, low calorific value, and it is a late-acting fertilizer.
1. Composting. Composting technology is an important way for the harmless treatment and resource utilization of cow manure. Composting cow manure has been systematically studied in the aspects of co-fermentation with other resources, optimization of fermentation inoculants, additives, fermentation temperature, humidity, and product characteristics after fermentation.
2. Earthworm composting. The use of earthworms to dispose of livestock and poultry waste is an ancient and new biotechnology. Since the end of the 1980s, many scholars at home and abroad have devoted themselves to the research of using earthworms to dispose of waste. Compared with the decomposed cow dung of natural composting, the mineral nitrogen and available potassium are higher than that of decomposed cow dung, but there is no significant difference in available phosphorus. The microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and enzyme activities are significantly higher than those of naturally decomposed cow dung; The number of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes is also higher than that of naturally decomposed cow dung, but fluctuates greatly.
3. Catalytic oxidation treatment. Catalytic oxidation method is used to degrade cow dung, so that undigested crude fiber, crude protein, crude fat and humic acid substances are converted into water-soluble organic substances and amino acid-fulvic acid (A-FA). The reaction is carried out under fully enclosed conditions, and there is no discharge of exhaust gas, waste liquid, and waste residue during the whole process. The composition of water-soluble organic substances in the product includes fulvic acid, amino acids, other low molecular weight organic acids and sugars. The content of active functional groups such as carboxyl group and phenolic hydroxyl group is slightly higher than that of weathered coal and peat fulvic acid, and is close to soil fulvic acid, and the product has quite high chemical and biological activity.
4. Used in aquaculture. Due to the high degree of degradation of feed by microorganisms in cattle, the consumption of oxygen in water by cow manure is lower than that of other livestock and poultry manure. Practice has proved that the use of cow dung in fish ponds reduces the occurrence of hypoxia in fish ponds. Cow manure does not need to be fermented when raising fish, it is better to use fresh manure. The number and amount of placement should be flexibly controlled according to weather, water color, fish growth and floating head conditions.
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